Enhancing recovery of cognitive and motor functions after localized brain injuries which disrupt connections between brain and body is widely recognized as a priority in healthcare. Nowadays, neurological diseases implying severe motor impairment are among the most common causes of adult-onset disability. Millions of people worldwide are affected by paralysis, and this number is likely to increase in coming years, because of the rapidly ageing population. Current assistive technology is still limited since only a minority of survivors with hemiparesis is able to achieve independence in simple activities of daily living. The frequent lack of complete recovery makes a desirable goal the development of novel neurobiological or neurotechnological strategies for brain repair.